How to count in Etruscan (mekh Rasnal), a language that was spoken in Eturia in Italy from about 600 BC to the 5th century AD.
Note: Etruscan numbers have different forms in different cases. The nominiative-accusative forms are shown here. The words for 4 and 6 are uncertain - they might mean 4 or 6.
If any of the numbers are links, you can hear a recording by clicking on them. If you can provide recordings, please contact me.
|Numeral||Cardinal numbers||Ordinal numbers|
|1 (𐌠)||𐌈𐌖 (θu) [tʰu] / 𐌈𐌖𐌍 (θun)||𐌈𐌖𐌍𐌉𐌍𐌀 (θunina)|
|2 (𐌠𐌠)||𐌆𐌀𐌋 (zal) [t͡sal] / 𐌄𐌔𐌀𐌋 (esal)|
|3 (𐌠𐌠𐌠)||𐌂𐌉 (ci) [ki] / 𐌊𐌉 (ki)|
|4 (𐌠𐌠𐌠𐌠)||𐌇𐌖𐌈 (huθ) [hutʰ] / 𐌇𐌖𐌕 (hut)|
|5 (𐌡)||𐌌𐌀𐌙 (maχ) [makʰ]|
|6 (𐌡𐌠)||𐌇𐌖𐌈 (huθ) / 𐌑𐌀 (śa) [ʃa] / 𐌔𐌀 (sa)|
|7 (𐌡𐌠𐌠)||śemφ [ʃempʰ]|
|8 (𐌡𐌠𐌠𐌠)||*cezp [ket͡sp]|
|9 (𐌡𐌠𐌠𐌠𐌠)||nurφ- [nurpʰ]|
|10 (𐌢)||śar [ʃar] / zar [t͡sar] / halψ [halkʰ]|
|11 (𐌢𐌠)||*θuśar [tʰuʃar]|
|12 (𐌢𐌠𐌠)||*zalśar [t͡salʃar]|
|13 (𐌢𐌠𐌠𐌠)||ci- śar- [kiʃar]|
|14 (𐌢𐌠𐌠𐌠𐌠)||*śaśar [ʃaʃar] / huθzar [hutʰt͡sar]|
|15 (𐌢𐌡)||*maψśar [makʰʃar]|
|16 (𐌢𐌡𐌠)||huθzar- [hutʰt͡sar] / *śaśar [ʃaʃar]|
|17 (𐌢𐌡𐌠𐌠 / 𐌠𐌠𐌠𐌢𐌢)||ciem zaθrum [ki-em t͡satʰum]|
|18 (𐌢𐌡𐌠𐌠𐌠 / 𐌠𐌠𐌢𐌢)||eslem zaθrum [esl-em t͡satʰum|
|19 (𐌢𐌡𐌠𐌠𐌠𐌠 / 𐌠𐌢𐌢)||θunem zaθrum [tʰun-em t͡satʰum]|
|20 (𐌢𐌢)||zaθrum [t͡satʰum]|
|30 (𐌢𐌢𐌢)||cealψ [t͡sealkʰ]|
|40 (𐌢𐌢𐌢𐌢)||śealψ [ʃealkʰ] / *huθalψ [hutʰalkʰ]|
|50 (𐌣)||muvalψ [muwalkʰ]|
|60 (𐌣𐌢)||*huθalψ [hutʰalkʰ] / śealψ [ʃealkʰ]|
|70 (𐌣𐌢𐌢)||śemφalψ [ʃempʰalkʰ]|
|80 (𐌣𐌢𐌢𐌢)||cezpalψ [ket͡spalkʰ]|
|90 (𐌣𐌢𐌢𐌢𐌢)||*nurφalψ [nurpʰalkʰ]|
* mark numbers that are not attested, but are hypothesized based on known numbers.
Information about Etruscan numbers
If you would like to make any corrections or additions to this page, or if you can provide recordings, please contact me.
Information about Etruscan | Numbers
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