Fox (Meshkwahkihaki)

Fox is an Algonquian language spoken by a few hundred people in parts of Oklahoma, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska in the USA. The majority of Fox speakers are elderly or middle aged. Since 2012 the Meskwaki Nation in Iowa has set up language classes for children and adults and produced learning materials for their language.

Fox is also known as Mesquakie, Meskwaki or Meshkwahkihaki. The native name is Meskwakiatoweni. It is closely related to Sauk and Kickapoo, which some consider to be dialects of Fox.

The Fox people belong to three federally recognized tribes:

Written Fox

Fox is written with the Latin alphabet, and there are several spelling systems. There are also other ways to write it, including the Fox alphabet, which is based on the cursive French alphabet.

Latin alphabet for Fox

Latin alphabet for Fox

Download an alphabet chart for Fox (Excel)

Sample text

Mᴀnigu nāhinā ä‘tcāko‘kātīgᶦ me‘tusäneniwᴀgᶦ. Wätcitcākō‘kātīgᶦ Wâpᴀsaiyᵃ icisōtug ineniwᵃ änänesātcᶦ me‘tosäneniwa‘ᶦ. Wī˙u˙tcipōninesātcᶦ, “Kī˙u˙tūgimāmipenᵃ, Wâpasaiyᵉ,” ähi˙o˙wātcᶦ me‘tosäneniwᴀgᶦ. Ōnäkīcitcāgᴀtiwātciwātcᶦ me‘tosäneniwᴀgᶦ ä‘kᴀtiōnetcᶦ Wâpᴀsaiyᵃ: “Nihutūgimāmipenᵃ kīyawᶦ.”


Now this was the time when all the people were encompassed round about (by their enemies). The cause of their all being beset was due to a man whose name must have been White-Robe and who was continually slaying people. To the end that he might cease from the killing of them. "We would have you become our chief, White-Robe", the people said. It was after the people were all agreed that White-Robe was addressed: "We wish you for our chief."

Part of Ä‘kepuskawutcᶦ Meckwa‘kīhagᶦ (When the Red-Earths Were Besieged), from Fox texts by William Jones (1907). The spelling system used here is Jones' own.

Sample videos in Fox

Information about Fox | Fox alphabet | Numbers


Information about Fox

Fox (Meskwaki) legends

Algonquian languages

Abenaki, Algonquin, Arapaho, Atikamekw, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Cree (East), Cree (Moose), Cree (Plains), Cree (Swampy), Cree (Woods), Fox, Innu (Montagnais), Kickapoo, Malecite-Passamaquoddy, Loup, Massachusett (Wampanoag), Menominee, Miami, Míkmaq, Mohegan, Mohican, Munsee, Narragansett, Naskapi, Ojibwe, Oji-Cree, Ottawa, Penobscot, Powhatan, Potawatomi, Quiripi, Sauk, Shawnee, Unami (Lenape)

Languages written with the Latin alphabet

Page last modified: 17.07.23


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