Hindi (हिन्दी)

Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language with about 545 million speakers, 425 million of whom are native speakers. It is one of the official languages of India and is the main language used in the northern states of Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar, and is spoken in much of north and central India alongside other languages such as Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi or Bengali. In other parts of India, as well as in Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan, Hindi is understood, and there is a significant number of Hindi speakers in South Africa, Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago and Nepal. In Fiji people of Indian origin speak Hindi, and in some areas the Fijian people also speak it.

Hindi at a glance

  • Native name: हिन्दी (Hindī)
  • Linguistic affliation: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central Zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Khariboli
  • Number of speakers: 545 million
  • Spoken in: India, Nepal, Fiji, South Africa, Mauritius, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago and Nepal
  • First written: 4th century AD
  • Writing system: Devanāgarī script (देवनागरी), Brahmi script
  • Status: Official language and national language of the Federal Government of India; official language of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand states.

Hindi is closely related to Urdu, the main language of Pakistan, which is written with the Arabic script, and linguists consider Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu to be different formal registers both derived from the Khari Boli dialect, which is also known as Hindustani. Apart from the difference in writing systems, the other main difference between Hindi and Urdu is that Hindi contains more vocabulary from Sanskrit, while Urdu contains more vocabulary from Persian. At an informal spoken level there are few significant differences between Urdu and Hindi and they could be considered varieties a single language.

Hindi first started to be used in writing during the 4th century AD. It was originally written with the Brahmi script but since the 11th century AD it has been written with the Devanāgarī alphabet. The first printed book in Hindi was John Gilchrist's Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language which was published in 1796.

Devanāgarī alphabet for Hindi

Vowels (स्वर) and vowel diacritics

Hindi vowels and vowel diacritics

A recording of the Hindi vowels by मुहम्मद शकेब बेग (Mohammad Shakeb Baig) from भोपाल, भारत (Bhopal, India)

Consonants (व्यंजन)

Hindi consonants

A recording of the Hindi consonants by मुहम्मद शकेब बेग (Mohammad Shakeb Baig) from भोपाल, भारत (Bhopal, India)

Numerals

Hindi numerals and numbers from 0-10

More Hindi numbers

Downloads

Sample text in Hindi

सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के मामले में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त है। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए।

IPA transcription

[səbʱiː mənʊʃjõː koː ɡɔːɾəʋ ɔːr əd̪ʱɪkaːɾõ keː maːmleː mẽː dʒənmədʒaːt̪ sʋət̪ənt̪ɾət̪aː pɾaːpt̪ hɛː. ʊnʱẽ bʊd̪ʱːɪ ɔːɾ ənt̪əɾaːt̪maː kiː d̪eːn pɾaːpt̪ hɛː ɔːɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽː bʱaːiːtʃaːɾeː keː bʱaːʋ seː bəɾt̪aːʋ kəɾnə tʃaːhɪeː]

Transliteration

Sarbhī manuṣyōn̐ kō gaurav aur adhikārōn̐ kē māmalē mēn̐ janmajāt svatantratā aur samānatā prāpt hai. Unhēn̐ buddhi aur antarātmā kī dēn prāpt hai aur paraspar unēn̐ bhāīcārē kē bhāv sē bartāv karanā cāhiyē.

A recording of this text by Ganesh Deshmukh

A recording of this text by मुहम्मद शकेब बेग (Mohammad Shakeb Baig) from भोपाल, भारत (Bhopal, India)

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Thanks to Arvind Iyengar for providing the above sample text.

Information about Hindi | Hindi phrases | Hindi numbers | Hindi kinship words | Tower of Babel in Hindi | Hindi learning materials | Electronic dicitonaries and translators for Hindi

Links

Hindi Translation
Hindi Translation
of names and phrases

Information about Hindi
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi
http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/other/hindi/guide/facts.shtml

Online Hindi lessons
http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/Students/avatans/project.html
http://www.ncsu.edu/project/hindi_lessons/lessons.html
http://www.myhinditeacher.com
http://www.ukindia.com/zhin001.htm
http://learninghindi.tumblr.com
http://www.learn-hindi-online.com
http://www.hindimitra.com
http://www.mindurhindi.com
http://www.hindiverbs.com
https://www.glovico.org/en/hindi

Learn Hindi online with Rocket Languages

Learn Punjabi and Hindi Online
http://punjabihindionline.com/services/learn-hindi-punjabi-online/

Information about the Devanagari alphabet for Hindi
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devanagari
http://www.learning-hindi.com/post/1021543673/intro-3-devanagari-the-hindi-alphabet
https://sites.google.com/site/sarvabhashin/en/hi
http://www.avashy.com/hindiscripttutor.htm
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3J7-3CCOpi8
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oaPZE2JX5SY

Online Hindi grammar reference
http://hindilanguage.info

Online Hindi dictionaries
http://www.shabdkosh.com
http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/platts/
http://www.tamilcube.com/res/hindi_dictionary.aspx
http://hindi-english.org

Devanagari fonts
http://www.wazu.jp/gallery/Fonts_Devanagari.html
http://www.kiranfont.com
http://www.devanagarifonts.net
http://www.sanskritweb.net/cakram/

Devanagari script tutor
http://www.avashy.com/hindiscripttutor.htm

Hindi transliterators
http://www.writeka.com
http://blog.syedgakbar.com/2010/02/06/hindi-to-english-and-hindi-to-urdu-transliteration/
http://girish.co.in/projects/dev/trans4.html

Hindi language and literature
http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/hindiint.html

Web resources for learning Hindi
http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/Students/avatans/project.html

Hindi language resources, including dictionaries, grammar and useful phrases
http://www.hindilanguage.org

Online news in Hindi
http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/
http://hindi.samachar.com
http://navbharattimes.indiatimes.com
http://janoduniya.tv

Askalo - information about Indian cities from local people
http://www.askalo.in

Indo-Aryan languages

Awadhi, Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Chakma, Dhivehi, Gujarati, Hindi, Kashmiri, Konkani, Kotia, Kutchi, Maithili, Marathi, Marwari, Modi, Nepali, Oriya, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Romany, Saraiki, Sindhi, Sinhala, Sourashtra, Sugali, Sylheti, Urdu

Languages written with the Devanāgarī alphabet

Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Kashmiri, Konkani, Kurukh, Maithili, Marathi, Marwari, Mundari, Nepal Bhasa / Newari, Nepali, Pali, Rajasthani, Sanskrit, Saraiki, Sindhi, Sunuwar, Sylheti


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