Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language with about 104 million speakers, including
those who speak it as a second language. It is the national language of Pakistan
and is closely related to and mutually intelligible with Hindi, though a lot of
Urdu vocabulary comes from Persian and Arabic, while Hindi contains more vocabulary
from Sanskrit. Linguists consider Standard Urdu and Standard Hindi to be different formal
registers both derived from the Khari Boli dialect, which is also known as
Hindustani. At an informal spoken level there are few significant differences
between Urdu and Hindi and they could be considered varieties a single language.
Urdu is also spoken in Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Botswana, Fiji,
Germany, Guyana, India, Malawi, Mauritius, Nepal, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia, South Africa, Thailand, the UAE, the UK and Zambia.
Urdu has been written with a version of the Perso-Arabic
script since the 12th century and is normally written in
Nastaliq style. The word Urdu is Turkish for 'foreign' or 'horde'.
The letter nūn-e ğunnah appears only at the ends of words
and nasalises the preceding vowel.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They
are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another
in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)