Basque (euskara)

Basque is a language with no known linguistic relatives spoken mainly in the Basque country (Euskal Herria) in the north of Spain and the south west of France. In 2016 about 631,000 people were were fluent in Basque, and another 356,000 people understood Basque. They make up about 53% of the population of this region.

Basque at a glance

  • Native name: euskara [eus̺ˈkaɾa]
  • Language family: Language isolate
  • Number of speakers: c. 9.5 million
  • Spoken in: Andorra, southern France, north east Spain, the Balearic Islands, Alghero in Sardinia, Italy
  • First written: 11th century
  • Writing system: Latin script
  • Status: official language in the Basque Autonomous Community and a co-official in the Basque-speaking area of Navarre in Spain. Recognised minority language in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department of France

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A Brief History of Basque

An ancestral form of Basque known as Aquitanian appears in Roman inscriptions in Aquitaine, in the southwest of France. The inscriptions consist of the names of people and gods plus a few other words and were inscribed during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD.

Basque first appeared in writing in Latin religious texts, the Glosas Emilianenses, dating from the 11th century. The first published book in Basque was a collection of poems entitled Linguae Vasconum Primitiae, published by Bernard Detchepare in 1545.

For centuries there was no standard orthography, and Basque was written with Romance spelling conventions supplemented by various additional devices to represent sounds not present in Romance languages. In 1964 the Royal Basque Language Academy (Euskaltzaindia) promulgated a new standard orthography; this met some resistance at first but is now almost universally used.


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Basque alphabet (Euskal alfabetoa)

Basque alphabet (Euskal alfabetoa)

The letters C, Ç, Q, V, W, and Y are also used, but only to write loanwords from other languages.

Download an alphabet chart (Excel)


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Basque-style lettering (Euskal tipografia)

This is a distinct style of lettering used to write Basque which developed from engravings and inscriptions. It is now used for mainly for decorative purposes. In inscriptions the area around the letters is removed, rather than carving the letters themselves, which gives them a 3D appearance.

Basque-style lettering (Euskal tipografia)

Examples of Basque lettering

Examples of Basque-style lettering

Other versions of the Latin alphabet

Archaic Latin alphabet, Basque-style lettering, Carolingian Minuscule, Classical Latin alphabet, Fraktur, Gaelic script, Merovingian, Modern Latin alphabet, Roman Cursive, Rustic Capitals, Old English, Sütterlin, Visigothic Script


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Sample texts in Basque

Gizon-emakume guztiak aske jaiotzen dira, duintasun eta eskubide berberak dituztela; eta ezaguera eta kontzientzia dutenez gero, elkarren artean senide legez jokatu beharra dute.

Hear a recording of this text

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Hear a recording of the whole of the UDHR in Basque

Iberiar Penintsulan bizirik dirauen erromatarren aurreko hizkuntza bakarra da euskara. Gutxitze prozesu gogorra jasan du, etenik gabe lurraldeak eta hiztunak galduz. Nafarroa Garaian bereziki, prozesu hori nabarmena da. XIX. mendearen bukaeran eta XX. mendearen hasieran, hainbat intelektual eta politikariren eraginez (Arturo Kanpion, Sabino Arana...) nolabait biziberritu zen, abertzaletasunari estuki loturik. Frankismoan (1936-1977) jazarpen latza pairatu ondoren, XX. mendearen erdialdetik aurrera hasi da indartzen, idatzizko estandarizazioari dagokionean, batez ere.

Hear a recording of this text by Unai Fernandez de Betoño

Translation

Basque is the unique pre-Roman language that survives in the Iberian Peninsula. It has suffered a dire retreat and loss regarding its speakers and territory. This process was especially notable in the High Navarre. At the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the efforts of various intellectuals and politicians (e.g. Arturo Kanpion and Sabino Arana), the language experienced a certain blooming, widely related to the Basque nationalism. After suffering from strong persecution during the Franco era (1936--1977), it has started to make a come back during the second half of the 20th century, especially regarding the standardization of the written language.

Sample videos in Basque

Information about Basque | Phrases | Numbers | Time | Tower of Babel | Articles | Learning materials


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Links

Information about Basque
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_language
https://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euskara
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euskera
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque
http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/
european_languages/languages/basque.shtml

Online Basque lessons
http://polymath.org/basque.php
https://partekatu.com/
http://www.ikasten.ikasbil.eus/course/
http://asignoret.free.fr/eskuara.html

Basque phrases
http://www.ilanguages.org/basque_phrases.php
http://www.101languages.net/basque/basics.html
https://mylanguages.org/basque_phrases.php

Online Basque dictionaries
http://www.lexilogos.com/english/basque_dictionary.htm
http://www1.euskadi.net/morris/dictionary.htm
http://www.lexicool.com/dictionnaire-traduction-basque.asp
http://www.diccionarios.com

Basque Grammar
http://www.ehu.es/grammar/

Basque fonts and letter styles
https://aboutbasquecountry.eus/en/2016/09/11/a-excellent-collection-of-basque-fonts-and-more-information-on-basque-typography-iii/
http://www.basqueletters.com/Index.htm
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tipograf%C3%ADa_vasca

Basque text-to-speech
http://aholab.ehu.es/tts/

Online Basque Radio
https://www.eitb.eus/es/radio/radio-euskadi/radio-online/

Online Basque news
http://www.gara.net
http://www.berria.info

Tweets in Basque
http://indigenoustweets.com/eu/

Language isolates

Ainu, Basque, Bilua, Burushaski, Candoshi-Shapra, Chitimacha, Eskayan, Hadza, Haida, Karuk, Kawésqar, Keres, Kuot, Kusunda, Kutenai, Natchez, Nihali, Nivkh, Páez, Purepecha, Sandawe, Seri, Sumerian, Ticuna, Tiwi, Tunica, Urarina, Wardaman, Washo, Yaghan, Yuchi/Euchee, Zuni

Languages written with the Latin alphabet

Page last modified: 22.03.22

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