Celtic cognates - Adjectives

This page contains adjectives that are cognate in all or some of the six modern Celtic languages.

Click on the English versions that are links and you will be taken to the Celtiadur, where you can see what each word means, and how some of them are pronounced. There are also details of related words and expressions, and words in older versions of the Celtic languages, such as Middle Welsh and Old Irish. More Celtic Cognates


Adjectives

These words are cognate in all six Celtic languages.

Gaeilge
(Irish)
Gàidhlig
(Gaelic)
Gaelg
(Manx)
Cymraeg
(Welsh)
Kernewek
(Cornish)
Brezhoneg
(Breton)
English
ard àrd ard ardd ardh arz high
beag beag beg bach
bychan
byghan bihan small
bodhar bodhar bouyr byddar bodhar bouzar deaf
breac breac breck brych brygh* brec'h speckled
striped
spotted
bréan breun breinn braen breyn brein rotten
cam cam cam cam kamm kamm crooked
bent
curve
Ceilteach Ceilteach Celtiagh Celtaidd keltek kelteg Celtic
cruinn cruinn cruinn crwn krenn
kern
krenn round
dall dall doal dall dall dall blind
dearbh dearbh jarroo (cefn)der(w) (ken)derow (ken)derv sure
certain
droch droch drogh drwg drog drouk bad
evil
eile eile elley ail eyl eil other
second
fia fiadh feie gŵydd goodh gouez wild
fíor fìor feer gwir gwir gwir true
fliuch fliuch fliugh gwlyb gleb
glyb
gleb wet
Gael Gàidheal Gael Gwyddel Godhal Gouezel Gael
Irish person
glan glan glen glân glan glan clean
clear
fogas fagas
faisg
faggys agos ogas hogos near
close
íseal ìosal injil
ishil*
isel isel izel low
lán làn lane llawn leun leun full
leathan leathann lhean llydan ledan ledan wide
broad
maith math mie mad mas mat/mad good
maoin maoin mayn mwyn muin maon gift
gentle
thin
maol maol meayl moel mool moal bald
bare
moo mwy moy mui bigger
more
mór mòr mooar mawr meur meur big
large
great
muad* muadh meeley meddal medhel med(d)al* soft
tender
nua nuadh noa newydd nowydh nevez new
óg òg aeg ifanc yowynk
yonk
yaouank young
sean sean shenn hen hen hen old
searbh searbh sharroo chwerw hwerow c'hwerv bitter
sour
síor sìor sheer hir hir hir long
constant
eternal
tanaí tana thanney tenau tanaw tanav thin
slender
tiubh tiugh çhiu tew tew tev thick
trua truagh truan
trieh
tru tru tru miserable
wretched
sad
uasal uasal ooasle uchel ughel uhel high
noble
umhal umhal imlee ufyl
hyful
uvel uvel humble
meek
submissive

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These words are cognate in some of the Celtic languages.

Gaeilge
(Irish)
Gàidhlig
(Gaelic)
Gaelg
(Manx)
Cymraeg
(Welsh)
Kernewek
(Cornish)
Brezhoneg
(Breton)
English
amh amh aw of raw
uncooked
bailc bailc balch balgh balc'h proud
arrogant
strong
bearr beàrr baarey byr berr berr short
brief
to cut
binn binn bing ban bann* sweet
melodious
loud
bog bog bog boug soft
tender
borr bòrr puffed up
swollen
proud
bras* bras bras bras bras great
big
swift
brith brith brizh speckled
variegated
brón bròn bran brwyn sad
bruth bruth brooan brwd broud hot
heat
rash
buan buan buan fast
lively
quick
caladh caled kales kalet hard
stingy
caoch caoch kyagh coeg koeg one-eyed
blind
caoin caoin keain cain ken tender
gentle
mild
caomh caomh cu kuv kuñv dear
gentle
sweet
caol caol keyl cul kul narrow
cas cas cast twisted
complicated
difficulty
ceart ceart kiart certh right
just
true
chwech hweg c'hwek sweet
delicate
cinnteach cinnteach kinjagh definite
certain
constant
cóir còir cair cywair just
rightful
cri kriv kriz raw
crude
clamh clamh claf klav klañv ill
diseased
leper
cúacca* gwag gwag gwak empty
soft
delicate
cúng cumhang coon cyfyng narrow
daor daor deyr servile
unfree
expensive
dara dala derrey second
dea- deagh da da da good
well
pleasant
diogel diogel diogel safe
secure
sure
dona dona donney bad
unfortunate
drúth drùth drud drudh fool
dear
cherished
earc earc erch mottled
speckled
fann fann gwan gwann gwan weak
feeble
fás fàs faase empty
fial fial feoilt gŵyl modest
seemly
fiar fiar gŵyr gwarr gwar crooked
bent
curve
folamh falamh follym empty
fosadh fosadh gwastad gwastas gou(e)stad stay
respite
flat
slow
fuar fuar feayr oer oor cold
goirt goirt gort salted
sore
bitter
golau golow gouloù light
bright
fair
hygar hegar hegar amiable
congenial
iain yeyn yen cold
freezing
icy
labhar labhar llafar lavar lavar talkative
lax* llaes lows laosk loose
slack
lax
léir lèir leayr llwyr loir* clear
complete
llawen lowen
lowenek
laouen happy
merry
lasair lasair lossyr llachar bright
shining
flame
lobh lobh loau(a)ghey rot
decay
lobhar lobhar lourane llwfr lovr weak
cowardly
leper
lonn lonn llon merry
fierce
bold
luas lùthas laueys speed
earliness
luath luath leah lleygys
lleiges
quick
fast
early
soon
mall mall moal slow
late
mear mear merre miri meri quick
fast
lively
milis milis millish melys melys sweet
minic minig mennick mynych menowgh frequent
often
moch moch mogh moch meuch* early
soon
nocht nochd noeth noth noazh naked
bare
olc olc olk evil
bad
poeth pooth poazh hot, cooked
rhydd rydh rid* free
cheap
réidh rèidh rea rhwydd rouez easy
even
ready
sámh sàimh peace
tranquility
rest
sámhach sàmhach silent
quiet
calm
saor saor seyr free
cheap
segur syger sigur idle
lazy
slow
séimh sèimh seyr thin
smooth
calm
sicir shickyr sicr
siŵr
sur segur sure
cetain
shrewd
slaodach slaodach sleaydagh flowing
slow
trailing
sona sona sonney happy
merry
sych sygh
segh
sec'h dry
tapa tapadh tappee quick
fast
cleverness
te teth cheh hot
warm
tirim tioram çhirrym dry
taw taw taw silence
quiet
twym tomm tomm warm
hot
trist trist trist sad
trom trom trome trwm trom* heavy
uabhar uabhar ofer euver euver vain
pride
worthless
bland
uafásach uabhasach horrible
terrible
ullamh ullamh ullee ready
finished
prepared
úr ùr oor ir yr new
fresh
verdant
ysgafn skav skañv light

Celtic cognates

Complete Cognates, Partial Cognates . Cognates arranged thematically: Adjectives | Animals | Birds | Clothes | Colours | Conjunctions | Countries | Directions | Food and Drink | Landscape | Languages | Metals | Musical terms | Numbers | Parts of the body | People | Pronouns | Prepositions | Sea creatures | Time expressions | Trees and Plants | Verbs | Weather | Tools | Other words

Celtiadur

A collection of Celtic cognates, with definitions, pronunciation, etymologies - includes the modern Celtic languages, older versions of these languages, such as Middle Welsh, Old Irish, and their extinct and reconstructed relatives and ancestors, including Gaulish, Celtiberian, Proto-Brythonic and Proto-Celtic.

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If you would like to make any corrections or additions to this page, or if you can provide recordings, please contact me.

Information about Celtic languages

Breton, Celtiberian, Cornish, Cumbric, Gaulish, Irish, Lepontic, Lusitanian, Manx, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh

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