Celtic cognates

This page contains words for features of the landscape that are cognate in all or most of the six modern Celtic languages.

Click on the English versions that are links and you will be taken to the Celtiadur, where you can see what each word means, and how some of them are pronounced. There are also details of related words and expressions, and words in older versions of the Celtic languages, such as Middle Welsh and Old Irish. More Celtic Cognates


Landscape

Words for features of the landscape that are cognate in all six Celtic languages.

Gaeilge
(Irish)
Gàidhlig
(Gaelic)
Gaelg
(Manx)
Cymraeg
(Welsh)
Kernewek
(Cornish)
Brezhoneg
(Breton)
English
abar abar, obar aber aber aber aber estuary
river mouth
abhainn abhainn awin afon avon aven river
ailt alt alt allt als aod hillock
hill(side)
cliff
coast
ard àrd ard ardd ardh arz height
hill
bealach bealach bollagh bwlch bolgh boulc'h way
pass
breach
road
beann beann beinn ban ban bann horn
mountain
top
peak
broinne broinn brein bryn bronn
brodn
bronn hill(ock)
breast
bulge
carraig carraig carrick carreg karrek karreg rock
stone
caiseal caisteal cashtal castell kastel kastell fort
fortress
town
city
castle
cill cill keeill cell kell kell cell
church
cliath cliath cleea clwyd kloos kloued hurdle
fence
cloch clach clagh clog clog kleger stone
cliff
cnoc cnoc cronk cnwc krug krec’h hill
mount
mound
breast
cró crò croa crau
craw
krow krao
kraou
stable
enclosure
cruach cruach creagh crug krug cruc hillock
heap
mound
pile
dún dùn doon din
dinas
din
dinas
din fort
fortress
town
city
castle
eaglais eaglais agglish eglwys eglos iliz church
inis innis innis ynys enys enez island
lann* lann lann llan lann lan church
parish
land
enclosure
lár làr laare llawr leur leur floor
ground
leac leac leac llech legh lec'h stone
slate
linn linne lhingey llyn lynn
lydn
lenn lake
pool
loch loch logh llwch logh loc'h lake
pond
inlet
magh magh maes mes maez field
plain
moned*
monad*
monadh muyne mynydd menydh menez mountain
moorland
hillside
muir muir mooir môr mor mor sea
rinn rinn rinn rhyn rynn rinn point
top
cape
promontory
ros ros ros rhos ros ros promontory
wood
sruth sruth stroo ffrwd frot* froud stream
river
current
valley
tír tìr çheer tir tir tir land
country
trá tràigh traie trai trig tre
trec'h
beach
ebb
shore

These words are cognate in some of the Celtic languages.

Gaeilge
(Irish)
Gàidhlig
(Gaelic)
Gaelg
(Manx)
Cymraeg
(Welsh)
Kernewek
(Cornish)
Brezhoneg
(Breton)
English
achadh achadh field
garden
enclosure
hedge
plain
áth àth aah ford
baile baile balley beili home
town
bailey
balla balla boalley gwal
wal
gwal wall
bóthar bòthar bayr beidr bownder   road
alley
lane
brí bre* bre bre bre hill
mount
hillock
height
caí* cae ke kae field
hedge
cathair cathair caayr fortress
monastery
city
caer ker kaer fort
castle
clais clais clash clais ditch
groove
trench
cladh cladh clawdd kleudh kleuz ditch
trench
rampart
cluain cluain clun meadow
pasture
moor
cora caradh cored kored weir
dam
cosán casan cassan path
cuas cuas cau kew kew hollow
cavity
cave
díog dìg jeeg ditch
dike
trench
dowrlam lamm-dour waterfall
droichead drochaid droghad bridge
eas eas eas waterfall
ffordd fordh street
alley
highway
fos fos ffos fos foz wall
butress
ditch
gaoth geodha giau inlet
estuary
cove
gort gort garth orth garth field
garden
enclosure
hedge
plain
inbhear inbhir inver river mouth
estuary
confluence
lios lios llys lis lez ringfort
court
fairy mound
machaire machair magher magwyr moger plain
field
wall
maighean maen men maen stone
place
múr mùr mur mur wall
nant nans ant stream
oileán eilean ellan island
pont pons pont bridge
ráth ràth raah rampart
ring-fort
raon rheam run field
garden
enclosure
hedge
plain
rhyd rys red ford
riathar rhaeadr waterfall
torrent
ród rathad raad rhawd roud road
course
route
séad séad hynt hens
hyns
hent path
way
course
road
ser* sêr ster ster river
star
slí slighe sleayd path
track
offspring
sliabh sliabh slieau mountain
moorland
hillside
sliocht sliochd sluight llwybr path
track
section
offspring
trácht traeth treth traezh beach
shore
sand
treibh treabh
treubh
tre(f) trev trev town
house
farmstead
uaimh uaimh oghe
ooig
(g)ogof gogow cave

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Celtic cognates

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Celtiadur

A collection of Celtic cognates, with definitions, pronunciation, etymologies - includes the modern Celtic languages, older versions of these languages, such as Middle Welsh, Old Irish, and their extinct and reconstructed relatives and ancestors, including Gaulish, Celtiberian, Proto-Brythonic and Proto-Celtic.

If you would like to make any corrections or additions to this page, or if you can provide recordings, please contact me.

Links

Information about Celtic place names
https://www.logainm.ie/en/
https://getoutside.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/guides/the-gaelic-origins-of-place-names-in-britain/
http://asmanxasthehills.com/place-names-on-the-isle-of-man/
http://www.isle-of-man.com/manxnotebook/fulltext/pn1925/index.htm
https://getoutside.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/guides/the-welsh-origins-of-place-names-in-britain/
https://www.cornwalls.co.uk/culture/cornish_place_names.htm
https://www.fr.brezhoneg.bzh/7-noms-de-lieux.htm
http://bcd.bzh/becedia/fr/apercu-des-noms-de-lieux-de-bretagne-les-themes-utilises-dans-les-noms-de-lieux

Information about Celtic languages

Breton, Celtiberian, Cornish, Cumbric, Gaulish, Irish, Lepontic, Lusitanian, Manx, Scottish Gaelic, Tartessian, Welsh

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