Celtic cognates

This page contains words for people that are cognate in all or most of the six modern Celtic languages.

Click on the English versions that are links and you will be taken to the Celtiadur, where you can see what each word means, and how some of them are pronounced. There are also details of related words and expressions, and words in older versions of the Celtic languages, such as Middle Welsh and Old Irish. More Celtic Cognates


Other words

These words are cognate in all six Celtic languages.

Gaeilge
(Irish)
Gàidhlig
(Gaelic)
Gaelg
(Manx)
Cymraeg
(Welsh)
Kernewek
(Cornish)
Brezhoneg
(Breton)
English
abar abar, obar aber aber aber aber estuary
river mouth
abhainn abhainn awin afon avon aven river
aingeal aingeal aile angel eledh ael fire
angel
ainm ainm ennym enw hanow anv name
alt alt alt allt als aod hillock
precipice
hill(side)
cliff
coast
anáil anail ennal anadl anal anal breath
anam anam annym enaid enev ene soul
spirit
aois aois eash oes
oed
oos
ooj
oad age
bealach bealach bollagh bwlch bolgh boulc'h way
pass
breach
road
beann beann beinn ban ban bann horn
mountain
top
peak
beatha beatha beaghey bywyd bewnans buhez life
beo beò bio byw bew bev alive
living
bith* bith beays byd bys bed world
being
existence
bord bòrd boayrd bwrdd
bwrd
bord
bordh
bourzh table
board
bóthar bòthar bayr beidr bownder   road
alley
lane
brí brìgh bree bri bri bri strength
essence
power
honour
dignity
broinne broinn brein bryn bronn
brodn
bronn hill(ock)
breast
bulge
Cáisg Càisg Caisht Pasg Pask Pask Easter
carraig carraig carrick carreg karrek karreg rock
stone
cloch clach clagh clog clog kleger stone
cliff
leac leac leac llech legh lec'h stone
slate
cath cath cah cad kas kad battle
cill cill keeill cell kell kell (hermit's) cell
church
cistin cistin kishteen cegin kegin kegin kitchen
cliath cliath cleea clwyd kloos kloued hurdle
fence
clé clì cleeah cledd cleth kleiz left
clog clag clag cloch clogh kloc'h bell
clock
clú cliù goo clyw klew klev hearing
fame
cnoc cnoc cronk cnwc krug krec’h hill
mount
mound
breast
caiseal caisteal cashtal castell kastel kastell fort
fortress
town
city
castle
cruach cruach creagh crug krug cruc hillock
heap
mound
pile
dún dùn doon din
dinas
din
dinas
din fort
fortress
town
city
castle
eaglais eaglais agglish eglwys eglos iliz church
eidheann eidheann hibbin eiddew idhyow(en) iliav(enn)
iliou(enn)
ivy
féan feun fainagh gwain goen
gweyn
gouin wagon
cart
chariot
sheath
féar feur faiyr gwair gora garzh hay
grass
geil geil gyndyr gwellt gwels geot
gwelt
grass
graze
flaith flath flah gwlad gwlas
gulas
glad sovereignty
country
nation
icht aiteam eggys iaith yeth yezh language
people
lár làr laare llawr leur leur floor
ground
lann* lann lann llan lann lan church
parish
land
enclosure
leabhar leabhar lioar llyfr lyver levr book
lus lus lus llys les louzaouenn plant
herb
magh magh maes mes maez field
plain
marbh marbh merriu
marroo
marw
marwolaeth
mernans marv dead
death
deceased
moned*
monad*
monadh muyne mynydd menydh menez mountain
moorland
hillside
muir muir mooir môr mor mor sea
Nollaig Nollaig Nollick Nadolig Nadelik Nedeleg Christmas
olann olann ollan gwlân gwlan glaon wool
seo seo shoh hwn
hon
hyn
ma mañ this
sin sin shen hwnnw
honno
hynny
homma
honna
se that
siabhainn* siabhann sheeabin sebon sebon soavon soap
spiorad spiorad spyrryd ysbryd sperys
spyrys
spered soul
life
spirit
sráid sràid straid stryd stret straed street
alley
highway
sruth sruth stroo ffrwd frot* froud stream
river
current
valley
tábla tàbla taabyl tabl tabel taol table
board
táille taille tailley tâl
talaith
tal tailh fare
fee
tally
teach taigh thie chi ti house
teanga teanga çhengey tafod taves
tavas
teod language
tongue
tribe
people
tine teine çhenney tân tan tan fire
lightning
tír tìr çheer tir tir tir land
country

These words are cognate in some of the Celtic languages.

Gaeilge
(Irish)
Gàidhlig
(Gaelic)
Gaelg
(Manx)
Cymraeg
(Welsh)
Kernewek
(Cornish)
Brezhoneg
(Breton)
English
achadh achadh field
garden
enclosure
hedge
plain
anseo an-seo ayns shoh yma omma amañ here
ansin an-sin ayns shen yna ena aze there
ansiúd (thall ansin) an-siud ayns shid draw
acw
yn tre ahont yonder
asgell askel askell wing
feather
fin
áth àth aah ford
rhyd rys red ford
baile baile balley beili home
town
bailey
bás bàs basse death
brí bre* bre bre bre hill
mount
hillock
height
bríste briogais breeçhyn brits(h) bragez
bragoù
trousers
breeches
caer ker kaer fort
castle
caí* cae ke kae field
hedge
caint cainnt caaynt speech
to speak
talk
casúr casar casoor hammer
cluain cluain clun meadow
pasture
moor
cosán casan cassan path
cris crys krys krez shirt
damhna damhna defnydd devnydh danvez matter
material
substance
droichead drochaid droghad bridge
éag eug angau ankow ankow dead
death
deceased
eite
eiteog
ite
iteag
fedjag adain wing
feather
fin
fáilte fàilte failt welcome
ffordd fordh street
alley
highway
gort gort garth orth garth field
garden
enclosure
hedge
plain
inbhear inbhir inver river mouth
estuary
confluence
lavrek lavreg trousers
breeches
leann llen len lenn curtain
cloak
cover
blanket
léine lèine lheiney shirt
tunic
girdle
machaire machair magher magwyr moger plain
field
wall
maighean maen men maen stone
place
morthwyl morthol morzhol hammer
nant nans ant stream
óir oir oyr for
because
reason
póg pòg paag poc pok kiss
pont pons pont bridge
raon raon rheam field
garden
enclosure
hedge
plain
ród rathad raad rhawd roud road
course
route
saol saoghal seihll world
existence
lifetime
séad séad hynt hens
hyns
hent path
way
course
road
ser* sêr ster ster river
star
slí slighe sleayd path
track
offspring
sliabh sliabh slieau mountain
moorland
hillside
sliocht sliochd sluight llwybr path
track
section
offspring
treibh treabh
treubh
tre(f) trev trev town
house
farmstead
triús triubhas troosyn trywsus trousers
breeches
uaimh uaimh oghe
ooig
(g)ogof gogoow
gug
cave

Notes

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Celtic cognates

Adjectives | Animals | Birds | Colours | Conjunctions | Food and Drink | Musical terms | Numbers | Time expressions | Parts of the body | People | Pronouns | Sea creatures | Trees | Verbs | Weather | Other words

Celtiadur

A collection of Celtic cognates, with definitions, pronunciation, etymologies - includes the modern Celtic languages, older versions of these languages, such as Middle Welsh, Old Irish, and their extinct and reconstructed relatives and ancestors, including Gaulish, Celtiberian, Proto-Brythonic and Proto-Celtic.

If you would like to make any corrections or additions to this page, or if you can provide recordings, please contact me.

Links

Stòr-fhaclan Co-dhàimheil Ceilteach (Database of Celtic cognates)
http://www.smo.uhi.ac.uk/gaidhlig/faclair/scc/lorg.php

McBain's Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language
http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/

Information about Celtic languages

Breton, Celtiberian, Cornish, Cumbric, Gaulish, Irish, Lepontic, Lusitanian, Manx, Scottish Gaelic, Tartessian, Welsh


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