Learn Hebrew online

Talk In Arabic

Warang Citi alphabet Warang Citi

The Warang Citi alphabet was invented by community leader Lako Bodra as an alternative to the writing systems devised by Christian missionaries. He claims that the alphabet was invented in the 13th century by Dhawan Turi, and that it was rediscovered in a shamanistic vision and modernised by Bodra. The alphabet is also known as Varang Kshiti.

The alphabet is used in primary and adult education and in various publications. About 2% of people who speak Ho are literate in their language.

Notable features

Used to write

Ho (𑢹𑣉𑣉 𑣎𑣋𑣜 / Ho jagar), a Munda language spoken mainly in the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhatisgarh, West Bengal and Assam, and also in Bangladesh. In 2001 there were just over a million speakers of Ho, which is closely related to Mundari and Santali, and is know as ho kaji, ho: basa, or ho haram. The word Ho (𑣙𑣉𑣉) means "human being".

Ho is written with the Warang Citi, Devanagari or Latin alphabets. It is used as a medium of instruction in schools in Odisha and Jharkhand. There are also some radio broadcasts in the language.

Warang Citi alphabet for Ho


Varang Kshiti consonants


Varang Kshiti vowels


Varang Kshiti numerals

Latin alphabet for Ho

Latin alphabet for Ho

Download an alphabet charts for Ho (Excel)

Video about the Warang Citi alphabet

Video in the Ho language


Information about the Warang Citi alphabet

Information about the Ho language

Munda languages

Gadaba, Ho, Kurukh, Mundari, Santali, Sora

Syllabic alphabets / abugidas

If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help. It enables you to type almost any language that uses the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets, and is free.

If you like this site and find it useful, you can support it by making a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or by contributing in other ways. Omniglot is how I make my living.


Note: all links on this site to Amazon.com, Amazon.co.uk and Amazon.fr are affiliate links. This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. So by clicking on these links you can help to support this site.