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Warang Citi alphabet Warang Citi

The Warang Citi alphabet was invented by community leader Lako Bodra as an alternative to the writing systems devised by Christian missionaries. He claims that the alphabet was invented in the 13th century by Dhawan Turi, and that it was rediscovered in a shamanistic vision and modernised by Bodra. The alphabet is also known as Varang Kshiti.

The alphabet is used in primary and adult education and in various publications. About 2% of people who speak Ho are literate in their language.

Notable features

Used to write

Ho (𑢹𑣉𑣉 𑣎𑣋𑣜 / Ho jagar), a Munda language spoken mainly in the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Chhatisgarh, West Bengal and Assam, and also in Bangladesh. In 2001 there were just over a million speakers of Ho, which is closely related to Mundari and Santali, and is know as ho kaji, ho: basa, or ho haram. The word Ho (𑣙𑣉𑣉) means "human being".

Ho is written with the Warang Citi, Devanagari or Latin alphabets. It is used as a medium of instruction in schools in Odisha and Jharkhand. There are also some radio broadcasts in the language.

Warang Citi alphabet for Ho

Consonants

Varang Kshiti consonants

Vowels

Varang Kshiti vowels

Numerals

Varang Kshiti numerals

Latin alphabet for Ho

Latin alphabet for Ho

Download an alphabet charts for Ho (Excel)

Video about the Warang Citi alphabet

Video in the Ho language

Links

Information about the Warang Citi alphabet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warang_Citi
http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/langhotspots/Ho/
https://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U118A0.pdf

Information about the Ho language
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ho_language
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ho_(langue)
https://www.ethnologue.com/language/hoc
http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/langhotspots/Ho/index.html
https://openspeaks.com/languages/ho/

Munda languages

Gadaba, Ho, Kurukh, Mundari, Santali, Sora

Syllabic alphabets / abugidas


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