Anglo-Saxon runes (ᚠᚢᚦᚩᚱ/Futhorc/Fuþorc)

Anglo-Saxon runes are an extended version of Elder Futhark consisting of between 26 and 33 letters. It is thought that they were used to write Old English / Anglo-Saxon and Old Frisian from about the 5th century AD. They were used in England until the 10th or 11th centuries, though after the 9th century they were mainly used in manuscripts and were of interest to antiquarians, and their use ceased after the Norman conquest in 1066.

It is possibly that this alphabet was developed in Frisia and then adopted in England, or that it developed in England and then spread to Frisia.

From the 7th century the Latin alphabet began to replace these runes, though some runes continued to appear in Latin texts representing whole words, and the Latin alphabet was extended with the runic letters þorn and wynn.

Anglo-Saxon runes (Futhorc/Fuþorc)

Anglo-Saxon Runes (Futhorc)


Notes and corrections provided by Nothelm Hurlebatte

Download an chart of Anglo-Saxon runes (Excel speadsheet)

Sample texts

Sample of Anglo-Saxon Runes: the front of the Franks Casket


fisc flodu ahof on fergenberig
warþ gasric grorn þær he on greut giswom
hronæs ban


The fish beat up the sea(s) on to the mountainous cliff
The king of (?)terror became sad when he swam onto the grit.
Whale's bone

The inscription is a riddle with the answer whale's bone, which is what the casket is made of.

From the Franks Casket. Photo by Simon Ager, taken in the British Museum.

ᛠᛚᛚ ᚠᚩᛚᛣ ᚹᛖᚩᚱᚦᚪᚦ ᚠᚱᛖᚩ ᚪᚾᛞ ᛖᚠᚾᛖ ᛒᛖ ᚪᚱᛖ ᚪᚾᛞ ᚱᛁᚻᛏᚢᛗ ᛡᛖᛒᚩᚱᛖᚾ. ᛡᛖᚱᚪᛞ ᚪᚾᛞ ᛁᚾᛡᛖᚻᚣᛡᛞ ᛋᛁᚾᛞ ᚻᚩᛚᛗ ᛡᛁᚠᛖᚦᚢ , ᚪᚾᛞ ᚻᛁᛖ ᚦᚢᚱᚠᚩᚾ ᛏᚩ ᚩᚦᚱᚢᛗ ᚩᚾ ᚠᛖᚩᚱᛖ ᛒᚱᚩᚦᚩᚱᛋᚳᛁᛈᛖᛋ ᛞᚩᚾ.

Transltieration (Old English alphabet)

Eall folc weorþaþ frēo and efne bē āre and rihtum ġeboren. Ġerād and inġehyġd sind heom ġifeþu, and hīe þurfon tō ōþrum ōn fēore brōþorsċipes dōn.

Transliteration (Latin alphabet)

Eall folc weorþaþ frēo and efne bē āre and rihtum ġeboren. Ġerād and inġehyġd sind heom ġifeþu, and hīe þurfon tō ōþrum ōn fēore brōþorsċipes dōn.

Translation (Modern English)

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)


Information about Angli-Saxon Runes

Convert English in the Latin alphabet to Anglo-Saxon Runes

Anglo-Saxon Runic fonts

Runic and Rune-like scripts

Elder Futhark, Younger Futhork, Medieval (Latinised) Futhark, Dalecarlian Runes, Anglo-Saxon Runes


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