Kalmyk is a member of the Kalmyk-Oirat subgroup of Mongolic languages.
It is spoken by about 500,000 people in Kalmykia in the Russian Federation
between the Volga and Don rivers, and in Western China and in Western Mongolia.
Kalmyk was first written with the Uyghur script in the 11th century. Then
in 1648 a Kalmyk Buddhist monk called Zaya Pandita Oktorguin Dalai
created the Kalmyk alphabet or Todo Bichig (Clear Script) by adapting
the Classical Mongolian script. The Clear script is still
used by Kalmyks in China, but Kalmyks in Russia adopted the Cyrillic alphabet,
as shown below, in 1924.
Kalmyk-Oirat Clear Script (Todo Bichig)
The Kalmyk-Oirat Clear Script is written in vertical columns running from
top to bottom and left to right. Each letter has a different shape depending
where it appears in a word, and special letters are used for combinations of
Kalmyk alphabet and pronunciation
в = [v] in Russian names and loanwords
At the beginning of words, e = [jɛ], ë = [jɔ]
Letters in blue are only used in Russian names and loanwords
Information about Kalmyk pronunciation compiled by Wolfram Siegel.
Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come, thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those who trespass against us;
and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.