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Turkish (Türkçe)

Turkish is a Turkic language spoken mainly in Turkey, Northern Cyprus and Cyprus. In 2017 there were 71 million native speakers of Turkish, and about 17 million second language speakers. Turkish is an official language in Turkey, Northern Cyprus and Cyprus, and there are also Turkish speakers in Germany, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia.

Turkish at a glance

  • Native name: Türkçe [ˈtyɾct͡ʃɛ]
  • Linguistic affliation: Turkic, Common Turkic, Oghuz, Western Oghuz
  • Number of speakers: c. 88 million
  • Spoken in: Turkey, Northern Cyprus, Cyprus, Germany, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece
  • First written: 11th century
  • Writing system: Ottoman Turkish script, Latin script
  • Status: official language in Turkey, Northern Cyprus and Cyprus. Recognised minority language in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Iraq, Kosovo, Macedonia, Romania

Turkish is a member of the Oghuz branch of the Turkic language family. It is closely related to Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Qashqai, Gagauz, and Balkan Gagauz Turkish, and there is considerable mutual intelligibility between these languages.

The ancestor of modern Turkish, Oghuz, was bought to Anatolia from Central Asia during the 11th century AD by Seljuq Turks. This developed into Ottoman Turkish, and contained many loanwords from Arabic and Persian.

Until 1928 Turkish was written with a version of the Perso-Arabic script known as the Ottoman Turkish script. In 1928, as part of his efforts to modernise Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk issued a decree replacing the Arabic script with a version of the Latin alphabet, which has been used ever since. Arabic and Persian loanwords were also replaced with Turkish equivalents. Nowadays, only scholars and those who learnt to read before 1928 can read Turkish written in the Ottoman Turkish script.

Turkish alphabet (türk alfabesi)

urkish alphabet (türk alfabesi)

Notes

Hear Turkish pronunciation

Sample text in Turkish

Bütün insanlar hür, haysiyet ve haklar bakımından eşit doğarlar. Akıl ve vicdana sahiptirler ve birbirlerine karşı kardeşlik zihniyeti ile hareket etmelidirler.

Hear a recording of this text

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Ottoman Turkish script (لسان عثمانى)

Ottoman Turkish abjad

Numerals

Arabic Numerals and Turkish numbers

Download alphabet charts for Turkish (Excel)

Sample text

Sample text in the Ottoman Turkish script

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Sample videos in Turkish

Information about Turkish | Phrases | Numbers | Family words | Time | Tongue twisters | Tower of Babel | Turkish learning materials

Links

Information about Turkish
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_language
http://www.turkishlanguage.co.uk
http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/other/turkish/guide/
http://www.allaboutturkey.com/dil.htm
http://fluentinturkish.com/

Online Turkish lessons
http://www.turkishlanguage.co.uk
http://cali.arizona.edu/maxnet/tur/
http://www.onlineturkish.com
http://cali.arizona.edu/maxnet/tur/
http://www.turkishclass.com
http://www.exploreturkish.com
http://www.teachyourselfturkish.com
http://turkish.pgeorgalas.gr/indexEn.htm
http://www.turkishbasics.com
http://turkish2learn.blogspot.com
http://ingilizce.g3n.in
http://turkishtools.tourkika.com
http://www.turkish-tutor.org
http://www.kuranharfleri.com/tr/osmanlica/osmanlica-dersleri-tamami
http://polymath.org/turkish.php
https://www.simplang.com/turkish/
http://www.turkishexplained.com

Learn Turkish with Free Podcasts

Turkish phrases
http://www.onlineturkish.com
http://turkeytravelplanner.com/details/LanguageGuide/100words_lessons/
http://www.linguanaut.com/english_turkish
http://tinyurl.com/2qgmv4
http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/language/turkish-phrases.html

The Turkish Listening Library
http://www.turkishlisteninglibrary.com

Online Turkish dictionaries
http://www.ingilizceturkce.com
http://www.turkce-ingilizce.com
http://www.kadifeli.com/cgi-bin/compdict.pl
http://www.langtolang.com
http://www.termbank.net/psychology/
http://www.turktrans.net/idioms/
http://www.zargan.com
http://www.dictionarist.com/turkish/
http://www.japonca.da.ru
http://www.sozlukte.com
http://www.ingilizcesozluk.da.ru/
http://ingilizce.biz.tm/sozluk
http://tdk.gov.tr
http://www.ingilizceturkcesozluk.net
http://www.ingilizceturkce.gen.tr/ingilizcesozluk.html
http://pauctle.com/entr
http://ctle.pau.edu.tr/rutr/
http://www.slovar.top/
http://www.dizisozluk.net
http://tr.bab.la
http://esanlam.pw/

Turkish ICQ chatroom
http://www.icqturk.com/chat/

Online translation between Turkish and other languages
http://www.hazar.com
http://ingilizceceviri.gen.tr
http://turkceingilizce.ingilizceturkce.gen.tr/

Online input for Turkish and other Turkic languages
http://www.isa-sari.com/ctlk/?id=en

Online input for Ottoman Turkish
http://www.isa-sari.com/osmanlica/?id=en

Turkish Electronic talking dictionaries
http://www.ectaco.com

Online Turkish language radio
http://www.trt.net.tr/
http://www.olayfm.com.tr
http://www.bbc.co.uk/turkish/
http://www.radyohiras.com

Online news in Turkish
http://www.turkcegazeteler.com
http://www.bbc.co.uk/turkish/
http://www.gazeteler.de

Online e-books and audio books in Turkish
http://www.1001kitap.com/
http://ekitap.kulturturizm.gov.tr/ana-sayfa/1-294/20120531.html
http://www.herkonu.de/showthread.php?t=8281
http://www.karakutu.com/seslikitap/
http://catmacam.tr.gg/sesli-kitap-dinle.htm
http://www.warezturkey.net/e-book/8260-100-temel-eser-sesli-kitap-turkce-indir.html
http://www.pandora.com.tr/yayinevi/sesli-kitaplar/2315

Türk Dil Kurumu (TDK) (Turkish Language Association) - the official language regulator of the Turkish language: http://tdk.gov.tr

Learn a Language - Easy, Fast & Fun. As Seen on TV!

- TurkishClass101.com - Learn Turkish with Free Audio and Video Lessons
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- Learn Turkish with the Turkish Language House

Turkic languages

Other languages written with the: Arabic, and Latin alphabets


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