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Hindi (हिन्दी)

Hindi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in India, and also in Nepal, Singapore and South Africa. There are about 615 million Hindi speakers worldwide, about half of whom are native speakers. In 2011 there were 612 Hindi speakers in India, 1.3 million Hindi speakers in Nepal, 361,000 Hindi speakers in South Africa (in 2003), and 50,000 Hindi speakers in Singapore (in 2017).

Hindi at a glance

  • Native name: हिन्दी (Hindī)
  • Linguistic affliation: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central Zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Khariboli
  • Number of speakers: 615 million
  • Spoken in: India, Nepal, South Africa and Singapore
  • First written: 4th century AD
  • Writing system: Devanāgarī script (देवनागरी), Brahmi script
  • Status: Official language of the Federal Government of India; official language of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand states.

Hindi is the main language used in the northern Indian states of Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar. It is spoken in much of north and central India alongside other languages such as Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi or Bengali. In other parts of India, as well as in Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan, Hindi is understood.

Hindi is spoken in the Bagmati, Janakpur and Narayani zones in the Terai lowlands of southern Nepal, and it is spoken in KwaZulu-Natal province in the east of South Africa.

Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of official languages of the government of India - the other offical language is English. Both languages are used in parliament, in the judiciary, in communications between the central government and state government, and for other official purposes.

Hindi is closely related to Urdu, the main language of Pakistan, which is written with the Arabic script. Linguists consider Standard Hindi and Standard Urdu to be different formal registers both derived from the Khari Boli dialect, which is also known as Hindustani. Apart from the difference in writing systems, the other main difference between Hindi and Urdu is that Hindi contains more vocabulary from Sanskrit, while Urdu contains more vocabulary from Persian. At an informal spoken level there are few significant differences between Urdu and Hindi and they could be considered varieties a single language.

Hindi first started to be used in writing during the 4th century AD. It was originally written with the Brahmi script but since the 11th century AD it has been written with the Devanāgarī alphabet. The first printed book in Hindi was John Gilchrist's Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language which was published in 1796.

Devanāgarī alphabet for Hindi

Vowels (स्वर) and vowel diacritics

Hindi vowels and vowel diacritics

A recording of the Hindi vowels by मुहम्मद शकेब बेग (Mohammad Shakeb Baig) from भोपाल, भारत (Bhopal, India)

Consonants (व्यंजन)

Hindi consonants

A recording of the Hindi consonants by मुहम्मद शकेब बेग (Mohammad Shakeb Baig) from भोपाल, भारत (Bhopal, India)

Numerals

Hindi numerals and numbers from 0-10

More Hindi numbers

Downloads

Sample text in Hindi

सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के मामले में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त है। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए।

IPA transcription

[səbʱiː mənʊʃjõː koː ɡɔːɾəʋ ɔːr əd̪ʱɪkaːɾõ keː maːmleː mẽː dʒənmədʒaːt̪ sʋət̪ənt̪ɾət̪aː pɾaːpt̪ hɛː. ʊnʱẽ bʊd̪ʱːɪ ɔːɾ ənt̪əɾaːt̪maː kiː d̪eːn pɾaːpt̪ hɛː ɔːɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽː bʱaːiːtʃaːɾeː keː bʱaːʋ seː bəɾt̪aːʋ kəɾnə tʃaːhɪeː]

Transliteration

Sabhī manuṣyōṁ kō gaurava aura adhikārōṁ kē māmalē mēṁ janmajāta svatantratā aura samānatā prāpta hai. Unhēṁ bud'dhi aura antarātmā kī dēna prāpta hai aura paraspara unhēṁ bhā'īcārē kē bhāva sē bartāva karanā cāhi'ē.

A recording of this text by Ganesh Deshmukh

A recording of this text by मुहम्मद शकेब बेग (Mohammad Shakeb Baig) from भोपाल, भारत (Bhopal, India)

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Thanks to Arvind Iyengar for providing the above sample text.

Information about Hindi | Phrases | Numbers | Kinship words | Telling the time | Tongue twisters | Tower of Babel | Learning materials | Electronic dicitonaries and translators

Links

Hindi Translation

Information about Hindi
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi
http://www.bbc.co.uk/languages/other/hindi/guide/facts.shtml
https://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/hindiint.html
http://www.britannica.com/topic/Hindi-language
https://www.alsintl.com/resources/languages/Hindi/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_with_official_status_in_India

Online Hindi lessons
http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/Students/avatans/project.html
http://www.ncsu.edu/project/hindi_lessons/lessons.html
http://www.myhinditeacher.com
http://www.ukindia.com/zhin001.htm
http://learninghindi.tumblr.com
http://www.learn-hindi-online.com
http://www.hindimitra.com
http://www.mindurhindi.com
http://www.hindiverbs.com
http://polymath.org/hindi.php
http://ilovelanguages.org/hindi.php

Learn Hindi online with Rocket Languages

Learn Punjabi and Hindi Online
http://punjabihindionline.com/services/learn-hindi-punjabi-online/

More Hindi links

Indo-Aryan languages

Awadhi, Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Chakma, Dhivehi, Domari, Fiji Hindi, Garhwali, Gujarati, Hajong, Hindi, Kashmiri, Konkani, Kotia, Kutchi, Magahi, Maithili, Marathi, Marwari, Modi, Nepali, Odia, Palula, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Rohingya, Romani, Saraiki, Sarnámi Hindustani, Sindhi, Sinhala, Shina, Sourashtra, Sugali, Sylheti, Torwali, Urdu

Languages written with the Devanāgarī alphabet

Awadhi, Bodo, Bhojpuri, Garhwali, Hindi, Jarawa, Kashmiri, Konkani, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Marathi, Marwari, Mundari, Nepal Bhasa / Newari, Nepali, Pali, Rajasthani, Sanskrit, Saraiki, Shina, Sindhi, Sunuwar, Sylheti


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