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Index of languages by language family

Languages are grouped into 135 families consisting of languges that are known or thought to be related. For example, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and other Romance languages all developed from Latin, and form one branch of the Indo-European language family. Languages with no relatives are known as language isolates.

There are 7,111 languages currently spoken, according to Ethnologue. Other sources give different totals. Over half of these languages have fewer than 10,000 speakers.

Sources: https://www.ethnologue.com/statistics
https://www.ethnologue.com/guides/how-many-languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered_language

This is a list of the languages featured on Omniglot arranged by the language families they belong to, with details of each language family.



Afroasiatic languages

The Afroasiatic language family includes around 375 languages which are spoken by over 350 million people in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of the Sahel. These languages are also known as Afro-Asiatic, Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic / Chamito-Semitic.

Berber languages
Ancient Berber, Ghadamès, Ghomara, Guanche, Kabyle, Rifian, Shilha (Tashelhit), Shawiya, Tamahaq, Tamasheq, Tamazight, Zenaga, Zuwara Berber
Chadic languages
Bade, Goemai, Hausa, Lele, Marba, Miya, Musey, Mwaghavul, Ngizim, Polci, Tangale, Tumak
Cushitic languages
Afaan-Oromo, Afar, Awngi, Beja, Blin, Gawwada, Iraqw, Somali, Xamtanga
Egyptian languages
Ancient Egyptian, Coptic
Omotic languages
Bench, Dizin, Hamer(-Banna), Sheko, Wolaytta
Semitic languages
Akkadian, Amharic, Arabic (Algerian), Arabic (Egyptian), Arabic (Lebanese), Arabic (Modern Standard), Arabic (Moroccan), Arabic (Syrian), Aramaic, Argobba, Assyrian / Neo-Assyrian, Canaanite, Chaha, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, Ge'ez, Hadhramautic, Harari, Hebrew, Himyaritic, Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Maltese, Mandaic, Nabataean, Neo-Mandaic, Phoenician, Punic, Qatabanic, Sabaean, Sabaic, Silt'e, Syriac, Tigre, Tigrinya, Turoyo, Ugaritic, Western Neo-Aramaic

More information about the Afroasiatic languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afroasiatic_languages
http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Afro-Asiatic_languages.html
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/afro-asiatic

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Algonquian languages

The Algonquian languages are spoken by between 90,000 and 130,000 people in southern Canada and northern parts of the USA. They are also known as Algic or Algonkian languages.

Algonquian languages

More information about the Algonquian languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algonquian_languages
http://www.native-languages.org/famalg.htm
http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Algonquian_languages.html
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/algic

Examples of spoken Algonquian languages

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Arawakan languages

There are 59 Arawakan languages spoken by about 500,000 people in parts of South and Central America and on Caribbean islands. They are also known as Arahuacan, Maipuran or Maipurean languages.

Arawakan/Maipurean languages
Achagua, Apurinã, Arawak, Asháninka, Ashéninka, Baniwa, Caquinte, Chamicuro, Curripaco, Garifuna, Machiguenga, Nanti, Nomatsiguenga, Paraujuano, Pauna, Piapoco, Taíno-Borikenaíki, Tariana, Wayuu, Yanesha', Yucuna

More information about Arawakan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arawakan_languages
http://archive.ethnologue.com/16/show_family.asp?subid=225-16
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/maipurean
http://www.sorosoro.org/en/arawak-languages

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Austroasiatic languages

The 169 Austroasiatic languages are spoken by about 80 million people in Southeast Asia, India, Bangladesh and southern parts of China.

Bahnaric languages
Brao, Chrau, Jru, Koho, Kuy, Sedang, Tampuan
Khasic languages
Khasi
Khmeric languages
Khmer, Northern Khmer
Monic languages
Mon
Munda languages
Gadaba, Ho, Kurukh, Mundari, Santali, Sora
Palaungic languages
Palaung, Wa
Vietic languages
Kri, Muong, Vietnamese

More information about Austroasiatic languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austroasiatic_languages
http://archive.ethnologue.com/16/show_family.asp?subid=271-16
http://www.sorosoro.org/en/austro-asiatic-languages

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Australian languages

There are 264 Aboriginal languages in Australia belonging to 27 different languages families, although the majority belong to the Pama-Nyungan family. There are also a number of language isolates. They are spoken by a total of around 50,000 people.

Arnhem languages
Bininj Kunwok, Enindhilyagwa, Nunggubuyu
Garrwan languages
Garawa
Iwaidjan languages
Maung
Jarrakan languages
Gija, Miriwoong
Mirndi languages
Jaminjung, Jingulu, Wambaya
Pama-Nyungan languages
Alyawarr, Arrernte, Bundjalung, Dhuwal, Gamilaraay, Gooniyandi, Gugadja, Guugu Yimithirr, Kala Lagaw Ya, Kaurna, Kunjen, Kuuk Thaayorre, Martu Wangka, Ngaanyatjarra, Ngiyambaa, Noongar, Paakantyi, Pintupi, Pitjantjatjara, Warlpiri, Wemba Wemba, Wik-Mungkan, Wiradjuri, Yindjibarndi, Yolngu
Southern Daly languages
Murrinh-Patha

More information about Australian Aboriginal languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Aboriginal_languages
http://archive.ethnologue.com/16/show_family.asp?subid=27-16
http://www.clc.org.au/articles/info/aboriginal-languages/

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Austronesian languages

The 1,257 Austronesian languages are spoken by about 300 million people in the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, and in Madagascar. Some of them are also spoken on the Southeast Asian mainland. They are thought to originate in Taiwan.

Batanic languages
Itbayat, Ivatan, Yami
Bornean languages
Formosan languages
Amis, Atayal, Bunun, Kavalan, Paiwan, Pazeh, Saaroa, Seediq
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Micronesian languages
Chuukese, Kiribati, Marshallese, Mokilese, Nauruan, Pohnpeian, Satawalese, Woleaian
Oceanic languages
Philippine languages
Polynesian languages

More information about the Austronesian languages
http://www.sorosoro.org/en/austronesian-languages
http://archive.ethnologue.com/16/show_family.asp?subid=243-16
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austronesian_languages

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Aymaran languages

Aymaran is a small family of languages spoken in central parts of the Andes mainly in Bolivia, and also in Peru, Chile and Argentina. There are some 2.5 million speakers of these languages, almost all of whom speak Aymara.

Aymaran languages
Aymara, Jaqaru

More information about the Aymaran languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aymaran_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/aymaran

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Barbacoan languages

The Barbacoan languages are spoken by about 248,000 people in northern Ecador and southern Columbia.

Barbacoan languages
Awa Pit, Cha'palaa(chi), Guambiano, Tsafikí

More information about the Barbacoan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbacoan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/barbacoan

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Caddoan languages

The Caddoan languages are spoken on the Great Plains of the USA from North Dakota to Oklahoma. Four Caddoan languages are still spoken, though only by a small number of elderly people.

Caddoan languages
Arikara, Caddo, Pawnee, Wichita

More information about the Cariban languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caddoan_languages

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Cariban languages

The Cariban languages are spoken in parts of Venezuela, Colombia, Suriname, Guyana and Brazil. Most only have a hundred speakers, but one, Macushi, is spoken by 30,000 people.

Cariban languages
Akurio, Hixkaryána, Macushi, Tiriyó

More information about the Cariban languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cariban_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/cariban

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Cahuapanan languages

There are just two Cahuapanan languages, Chayahuita and Jebero, which are spoken about 10,400 people in Peru.

Cahuapanan languages
Chayahuita, Jebero

More information about the Cahuapanan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cahuapanan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/cahuapanan

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Caucasian languages

The languages of the Caucasus region are grouped into three families, which are not related to one another: Northeast, Northwest and South Caucasian.

The Northeast Caucasian languages are spoken by about 3.8 million people in the Russian republics of Dagestan and Chechnya, the disputed region of Ingushetia, and in northern Azerbaijan and northeastern Georgia.

Northeast Caucasian languages
Aghul, Akhvakh, Andi, Archi, Avar, Bagvalal, Batsbi, Bezhta, Botlikh, Budukh, Caucasian Albanian, Chamalal, Chechen, Dargwa, Godoberi, Hinukh, Hunzib, Ingush, Karata, Khinalug, Khwarshi, Kryts, Kubachi, Lak, Lezgian, Rutul, Tabassaran, Tindi, Tsakhur, Tsez, Udi

The Northwest Caucasian languages have about 2.5 million speakers in Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, and Abkhazia in the Russian Federation, and also in Turkey.

Northwest Caucasian languages
Abaza, Abhkaz, Adyghe, Kabardian, Ubykh

The South Caucasian or Kartvelian languages have some 5.2 million speakers in Georgia and neighbouring parts of Russia.

South Caucasian / Kartvelian languages
Georgian, Laz, Mingrelian, Svan

More information about the Caucasian languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_the_Caucasus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northeast_Caucasian_languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northwest_Caucasian_languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kartvelian_languages

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Chonan languages

The Chonan or Chon languages are spoken in Patagonia in southern Argentina. Two Chonan languages are currently spoken by a handful of people.

Chonan languages
Ona, Tehuelche

More information about Chibchan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chonan_languages
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/chon

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Chibchan languages

The Chibchan languages are spoken in parts of Colombia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

Chibchan languages
Bribri, Cabécar, Guaymí, Kuna, Teribe

More information about Chibchan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chibchan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/chibchan

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Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages

The Chukotko-Kamchatkan or Chukchi–Kamchatkan languages are spoken in the northeast of Siberia in Russia. There are just five languages in this family: one in the Northern or Kamchatkan branch - Itelmen - and four in the Southern or Chukotko branch.

Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages
Alyutor, Chukchi, Itelmen, Koryak

More information about Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chukotko-Kamchatkan_languages
http://languagesgulper.com/eng/Chukotko.html
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/chukotko-kamchatkan
http://www.sorosoro.org/en/chukotko-kamchatkan-language-family/

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Chumashan languages

The Chumashan languages were spoken along the southern coast of California in the USA, between San Luis Obispo and Malibu, in the Transverse Ranges valleys, and on San Miguel, Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands. The last native speak of a Chumashan language died in 1965, however since then efforts have been made to revive the languages.

Chumashan languages
Barbareño

More information about Chumashan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chumashan_languages
http://www.native-languages.org/chumash.htm
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/chumashan

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Dravidian languages

The 85 Dravidian languages are spoken by around 215 million people, mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, and also in northeastern Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh.

Dravidian languages
Badaga, Brahui, Gondi, Irula, Jatapu, Kannada, Kodava, Kolam, Konda, Koya, Kurukh, Malayalam, Mukha Dora, Sankethi, Savara, Sunuwar, Suriyani Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, Toda, Tulu, Yerukula

More information about Dravidian languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/dravidian
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/171083/Dravidian-languages

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Eskimo-Aleut languages

There are eleven Eskimo-Aleut languges spoken in Greenland, northern Canada, northern Alaska, and on the Chukchi Peninsula in eastern Siberia by about 77,415 people. They are also known as Eskaleutian, Eskaleutic, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan.

Eskimo-Aleut languages
Aleut, Alutiiq, Greenlandic, Inuktitut, Iñupiaq, Yup'ik (Central Alaskan), Yupik (Central Siberian)

More information about Eskimo-Aleut languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eskimo%E2%80%93Aleut_languages
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/192563/Eskimo-Aleut-languages

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Guaicuruan languages

There are five Guaicuruan languages spoken by about 48,590 people in northern Argentina, western Paraguay, and in Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. They are also known as Guaykuruan, Waikurúan, Guaycuruano, Guaikurú, Guaicurú or Guaycuruana languages.

Guaicuruan languages
Pilagá, Toba Qom

More information about Guaicuruan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guaicuruan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/guaykuruan

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Hmong-Mien languages

The Hmong-Mien, or Miao-Yao, language family consists of 38 languages spoken by about 7-10 million people in southern China, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Burma.

Hmong-Mien
A-Hmao, Dananshan Miao, Hmong, Hmong Dau, Hmong Njau, Hmu, Iu Mien, Luobohe Miao, Mashan Miao, Qo Xiong

More information about Hmong-Mien languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hmong%E2%80%93Mien_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/hmong-mien
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/379726/Hmong-Mien-languages
http://www.languagesgulper.com/eng/Hmong.html

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Indo-European languages

The 445 or so Indo-European languages have about 3 billion native speakers and many more second and foreign language speakers. They are are spoken in most of Europe, parts of the Middle East, South and Central Asia, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, and many parts of Africa.

Proto-Indo-European
Albanian languages
Albanian, Arbëresh, Arvanitic
Armenian languages
Armenian
Baltic languages
Latgalian, Latvian, Lithuanian
Celtic languages
Breton, Celtiberian, Cornish, Cumbric, Gaulish, Irish, Lepontic, Lusitanian, Manx, Scottish Gaelic, Tartessian, Welsh
Germanic languages
Afrikaans, Alsatian, Bavarian, Cimbrian, Danish, Dutch, Elfdalian, English, Faroese, Flemish, German, Gothic, Gottscheerish, Hunsrik, Icelandic, Limburgish, Low German, Luxembourgish, Mòcheno, Norn, North Frisian, Norwegian, Old English, Old Norse, Pennsylvania German, Ripuarian, Saterland Frisian, Scots, Shetland(ic), Stellingwarfs, Swedish, Swiss German, Värmlandic, West Frisian, Wymysorys, Yiddish, Zeelandic
Hellenic languages
Greek, Griko, Pontic Greek, Tsakonian, Yevanic
Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Aryan languages
Awadhi, Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Chakma, Dhivehi, Domari, Fiji Hindi, Garhwali, Gujarati, Hajong, Hindi, Kashmiri, Konkani, Kotia, Kutchi, Magahi, Maithili, Marathi, Marwari, Modi, Nepali, Odia, Palula, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Rohingya, Romani, Saraiki, Sarnámi Hindustani, Sindhi, Sinhala, Shina, Sourashtra, Sugali, Sylheti, Torwali, Urdu
Iranian languages
Avestan, Baluchi, Bartangi, Dari, Gilaki, Hazaragi, Ishkashimi, Juhuri, Khufi, Kurdish, Luri, Mazandarani, Ossetian, Oroshor, Persian, Parthian, Pashto, Rushani, Sanglechi, Sarikoli, Shabaki, Shughni, Tajik, Talysh, Tat, Wakhi, Yaghnobi, Yazghulami, Zazaki
Italic languages
Faliscan, Latin, Oscan, South Picene, Umbrian
Romance languages
Aragonese, Aranese, Aromanian, Asturian, Catalan, Corsican, Dalmatian, Emilian-Romagnol, Extremaduran, Fala, Franco-Provençal, French, Friulian, Galician, Gallo, Genoese, Guernésiais, Istriot, Italian, Jèrriais, Ladino, Ladin, Lombard, Megleno-Romanian, Mirandese, Moldovan, Monégasque, Mozarabic, Neapolitan, Occitan, Picard, Piedmontese, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Sardinian, Sicilian, Spanish, Venetian, Walloon
Slavic languages
Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Kashubian, Knaanic, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Old Church Slavonic, Polish, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, Silesian, Slovak, Slovenian, Sorbian, Ukrainian, West Polesian

Sample video in Proto-Indo-European

More information about Indo-European languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/indo-european
http://www.languagesgulper.com/eng/Indoeuropean.html

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Iroquoian languages

There are seven Iroquoian languages in parts of the eastern and northeastern USA and southeastern Canada by about 386,000 people.

Iroquoian languages
Cayuga, Cherokee, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora, Wendat

More information about Iroquoian languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iroquoian_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/iroquoian
http://www.languagegeek.com/rotinonhsonni/iroquoian.html

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Japonic / Japanese-Ryukyuan languages

The Japonic or Japanese-Ryukyuan languages are spoken in J apan by about 122 million people. There are 12 of them, the largest of which is Japanese.

Japonic / Japanese-Ryukyuan languages
Japanese, Okinawan, Yonaguni

More information about Japonic languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japonic_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/japonic

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Jivaroan languages

There are four Jivaroan languages spoken by about 85,630 in northern Peru and eastern Ecuador. It is also known as Hívaro, Jívaro, Jibaroana, or Jibaro.

Jivaroan languages
Achuar-Shiwiar, Aguaruna, Huambisa, Shuar

More information about Jivaroan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jivaroan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/jivaroan

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Kadu / Kadugli-Krongo languages

The Kadu / Kadugli-Krongo languages are spoken in central Sudan by about 75,000 people. There are about 30 of them.

Kadu languages
Kadugli, Kanga, Katcha, Kamda, Keiga, Krongo, Kufa, Miri

More information about Kadu languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kadu_languages

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Khoe languages

The Khoe languages are spoken in Namibia, Botswana and South Africa. There are just eight languages in this family.

Khoe languages
Khoekhoe (Nama), Naro

More information about Khoe languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khoe_languages
http://www.sorosoro.org/en/khoe-languages/

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Koreanic languages

The Koreanic language family consists of Korean, and Jeju, which is considered a separate language by some, or a dialect of Korean by others. There are other dialects of Korean in North Korea and South Korea, and in Japan, China and Central Asian countries.

Koreanic languages
Jeju, Korean

More information about Koreanic languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koreanic_languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_dialects
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/koreanic

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Kx'a languages

The Kx'a or Ju–ǂHoan language family consist of a few languages spoken in Angola, Namibia and Botswana. Before 2010 they were classified as Khoisan languages.

Kx'a languages
ǂ’Amkoe (ǂHoan), Ekoka !Kung, Gǀui, Juǀʼhoan

More information about Kx'a languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kx'a_languages
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/kx'

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Maiduan languages

The Maiduan languages were spoken in central California in the USA until the late 20th or early 21st century. Efforts are being made to revive one of them Northwest Maidu / Konkow.

Maiduan languages
Northwest Maidu / Konkow

More information about Maiduan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maiduan_languages
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/maiduan

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Mayan languages

There 31 Mayan languages spoken by over 7 million people mainly in southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and Honduras, and also in El Salvador.

Mayan languages
Achi, Aguacateco, Akatek, Ch’ol, Chorti, Huasteco, Ixil, Jakaltek, Kaqchikel, Ki'che', Lacandon, Mam, Q’anjob’al, Q'eqchi', Tojolabal, Tsotsil, Tzeltal, Tz'utujil, Yucatec Maya

More information about Mayan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/mayan
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/370823/Maya-languages

Sample video Mayan languages

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Misumalpan languages

The Misumalpan language family consists of three languages spoken by about 192,000 people on the east coast of Nicaragua and neighbouring areas. They are also known as Misumalpa or Misuluan languages.

Misumalpan languages
Miskito

More information about Misumalpan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Misumalpan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/misumalpan

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Mongolic languages

The Mongolic language family has eleven members which are spoken by about 6.5 million people, mainly in Mongolia. There are also speakers of Mongolic languages in northern China, in Buryatia and Kalmykia in Russia, and in Herat in Afghanistan.

Mongolic languages
Buryat, Daur, Kalmyk, Mongolian, Monguor, Santa / Dongxiang

More information about Mongolic languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolic_languages
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/mongolic

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Muskogean languages

There are six Muskogean languages spoken by about 17,000 people in parts of Oklahoma, Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida, Texas and Tennessee in the USA.

Muskogean languages
Alabama, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Koasati, Mikasuki

More information about Muskogean languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muskogean_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/muskogean

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Na-Dené languages

The Na-Dené grouping of languages includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak and Tlingit languages, and possibly the Yeniseian languages of Siberia. These languages are spoken by about 180,000 people in Alaska, northwestern Canada, southwestern parts of the USA, and in central Siberia. This grouping is somewhat controversial, and is also known as Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit or Tlina-Den.

Athabaskan-Eyak languages
Ahtna, Apache, Babine-Witsuwit'en, Chilcotin, Chipewyan, Deg Xinag, Dena’ina, Dane-zaa (Beaver), Eyak, Gwich'in, Hän, Hupa, Jicarilla, Kaska, Koyukon, Lower Tanana, Mescalero-Chiricahua, Navajo, North Slavey, Sekani, South Slavey, Tahltan, Tanacross, Tłı̨chǫ (Dogrib), Tolowa, Tsuut'ina (Sarcee), Tutchone, Upper Kuskokwim, Upper Tanana
Tlingit languages
Tlingit

More information about Na-Dené languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Na-Dené_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/eyak-athabaskan
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/yeniseian

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Niger-Congo languages

With some 1,400 members, the Niger-Congo language family is the largest in the world. They are spoken in most of sub-Saharan Africa by around 600 million people.

Atlantic-Congo languages
Bandial, Bariba, Efik, Ibibio, Kambari, Kissi, Kom, Laalaa, Limba, Mbum, Noon, Safen, Supyire, Temne, Ubang, Yemba
Bak languages
Jola-Fonyi, Mankanya
Bantu languages
Bemba, Bulu, Chichewa, Chokwe, Comorian, Digo, Duala, Ewondo, Fang, Ganda/Luganda, Gwere, Herero, Ikizu, Jita, Kikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirundi, Kisi, Kongo, Konjo, Lingala, Loma, Lozi, Makonde, Mandekan, Maore, Mende, Mushungulu, Mwani, Nkore, Northern Ndebele (South Africa), Northern Ndebele (Zimbabwe), Northern Sotho, Nyole, OshiWambo, Ronga, Sena, Shona, Soga, Southern Ndebele, Southern Sotho, Swahili, Swati, Tofa, Tshiluba, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Umbundu, Venda, Xhosa, Yao, Zigula, Zinza, Zulu
Bantoid languages
Awing, Bamum, Pinyin
Gur languages
Dagaare, Dagbani, Kabiye, Kasem, Mossi, Tammari
Kainji languages
Cipu, Vadi
Kru languages
Bassa, Guere, Jabo
Kwa languages
Akan, Baoulé, Ga, Gonja, Nzema, Twi
Mande languages
Bambara, Busa, Kpelle, Loma, Mandinka, Maninka, Mano, Mende, Soninke, Susu, Vai
Senegambian languages
Adamaua Fulfulde, Fula(ni), Serer, Wolof
Talodi languages
Acheron, Dengebu, Lumun, Tocho
Volta-Niger languages
Aja, Edo, Ewe, Fon, Gen, Igbo, Nupe, Yorùbá

More information about Niger-Congo languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niger%E2%80%93Congo_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/niger-congo
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/414793/Niger-Congo-

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Nilo-Saharan languages

The Nilo-Saharan language family consists of around 200 languages which are spoken in central and east Africa by about 50 million people, particularly along the River Nile and in central parts of the Sahara.

Nilo-Saharan languages
Acholi, Alur, Aringa, Avokaya, Baka, Bari, Beli, Bongo, Daza, Dholuo, Dinka, Dongotono, Fur, Jur Modo, Kanuri, Karamojong, Keliko, Komo, Lotuko, Lokoya, Lopit, Lugbara, Maasai, Ma'di, Morokodo, Moru, Narim, Nuer, Nobiin, Old Nubian, Olu'bo, Shilluk, Toposa, Uduk, Wa'di, Zaghawa, Zarma

More information about Nilo-Saharan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nilo-Saharan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/nilo-saharan
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/415424/Nilo-Saharan

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Ongan languages

The Ongan languages are spoken in the southern Andaman Islands, a part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a Union territory of India. There are currently two known Ongan languages with about 300 speakers between them. The language spoken on North Sentinel Island, Sentinelese, is possibly related, however as no outsiders can visit the island, it is not certain. Another possible Ongan language, Jangil, was spoken on Rutland Island in the southern Andaman Islands until the late 19th or early 20th century.

Ongan languages
Jarawa, Onge

More information about Ongan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ongan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/otomanguean

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Oto-Manguean languages

The Oto-Manguean languages are spoken by about 2 million people in central Mexico in the states of Oaxaca, Mexico, Hidalgo, Querétaro. They were formerly spoken in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Costa Rica.

Oto-Manguean languages
Chinanteco, Chatino, Chiquihuitlán Mazatec, Jalapa Mazatec, Mazahua, Mazatec, Mixtec, Otomi, Tlapanec, Zapotec

More information about Oto-Manguean languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oto-Manguean_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/otomanguean

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Panoan languages

There are about 20 Panoan languages spoken by about 40,000 people in parts of Peru, western Brazil and Bolivia.

Panoan languages
Amahuaca, Kashibo, Kashinawa, Shipibo, Yaminawa

More information about Panoan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oto-Manguean_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/otomanguean

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Papuan languages

There are just four Papuan languages, which are also known as Central Solomon languages, and they are spoken in the Solomon Islands on Vella Lavella, Ghizo, Rendova, Russell and Savo islands.

Papuan languages
Savosavo

More information about Papuan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papuan_languages
https://www.britannica.com/topic/Papuan-languages
https://languagesgulper.com/eng/Papuan.html

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Plateau Penutian languages

The Plateau Penutian languages are Native American languages spoken in northern California, central Oregon, northern Washington and central Idaho. There are four languages in this family, although one of them, Molala, has not been spoken since the 1950s.

Plateau Penutian languages
Klamath, Nez Perce, Sahaptin

More information about Plateau Penutian languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plateau_Penutian_languages
http://www.native-languages.org/fampen.htm

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Pomoan languages

The seven Pomoan or Pomo languages are spoken in northern Californian in the USA by about 50 or 60 people.

Pomoan languages
Central Pomo, Eastern Pomo, Kashaya, Northern Pomo, Southern Pomo

More information about Pomoan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomoan_languages
http://www.native-languages.org/pomo.htm

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Peba-Yagua languages

The Peba-Yaguan languages were spoken in northwestern parts of the Amazon. The only surviving member of this language family is Yagua, which is spoken in northeastern Peru. The other members, Peba and Yameo, are extinct.

Peba-Yagua languages
Yagua

More information about Panoan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peba%E2%80%93Yaguan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/yaguan

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Quechuan languages

The Quechuan language family consists of 46 languages spoken by about 8-10 million people mainly in Peru, Ecuador and Boliva, and also in Argentina and Colombia. The Quechuan languages are the most widely-spoken indigenous languages in South America.

Quechuan languages
Ayacucho Quechua, Cusco Quechua, Kichwa, South Bolivian Quechua

More information about Quechuan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quechuan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/quechuan

An example of spoken Quechua

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Salishan languages

The Salishan languages are spoken in the Canadian province of British Columbia, and in the US states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana. There are 23 Salishan languages, and many dialects and sub-dialects, and all are endangered. Few are spoken by more than a thousand people, and most have only a small number of elderly speakers.

Salishan languages
Coeur d'Alene, Comox, Halkomelem, Klallam, Lushootseed, Lillooet, Nuxalk, Okanagan, Saanich, Salish, Shuswap, Squamish, Thompson / Nlaka'pamux

More information about the Salishan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salishan_languages

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Sino-Tibetan languages

There are over 400 Sino-Tibetan languages spoken by over a billion people in East Asia, Southeast Asia and parts of South Asia.

Angami-Pochuri languages
Pochuri
Ao languages
Yimchungrü
Brahmaputran / Sal languages
Atong, Chang
Digaro languages
Digaro Mishmi, Idu Mishmi
Kukish languages
Biete, Karbi, Kom, Mizo, Paite, Tedim, Zou
Sinitic (Chinese) languages
Dungan, Cantonese, Fuzhounese, Gan, Hakka, Mandarin, Puxian, Shanghainese, Taiwanese, Teochew, Wenzhounese, Xiang
Tani languages
Bokar
Tibeto-Burman languages
Achang, Arakanese, Balti, Bantawa, Bisu, Drung, Dzongkha, Garo, Hajong, Hani, Hmar, Jingpho, Karen, Kayah Li, Ladakhi, Lahu, Lepcha, Limbu, Lipo, Lisu, Manipuri, Marma, Mro, Naxi, Nepal Bhasa / Newari, Sikkimese, Sunuwar, Tangkhul Naga, Tibetan, Tshangla, Tujia, Yi

More information about Sino-Tibetan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sino-Tibetan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/sino-tibetan

Examples of Sinitic languages

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Siouan languages

There are 14 Siouan languages spoken mainly in central parts of the USA and Canada by about 20,000 people. This language family is also known as Siouan-Catawban.

Siouan languages
Assiniboine, Biloxi, Chiwere, Crow, Dakota, Hidatsa, Lakota, Mandan, Omaha, Osage, Quapaw, Stoney, Tutelo, Winnebago / Ho-Chunk

More information about the Siouan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siouan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/siouan-catawban
http://www.languagegeek.com/siouan/siouan.html

Sample of spoken Lakota Sioux

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Tai-Kaidai languages

The Tai-Kaidai languages includes 95 languages spoken in southern China and Southeast Asia by about 85 million people. This language family is also known as Daic, Kadai, Kradai or Kra-Dai.

Tai-Kaidai languages
Ahom, Bouyei, Dehong Dai, Kam, (Tai) Khün, Lanna, Lao, Lue, Shan, Sui, Tai Dam, Tai Ya, Thai, Zhuang

More information about the Tai-Kaidai languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tai-Kadai_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/tai-kadai
http://aboutworldlanguages.com/tai-kadai-language-family

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Tanoan languages

The Tanoan language family consists of just six languages that are spoken mainly in the pueblos of New Mexico, and also in Arizona. The family is also known as Kiowa-Tanoan or Tanoan-Kiowa, and has about 7,250 speakers all together.

Tanoan languages
Southern Tiwa, Taos

More information about the Tanoan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanoan_languages
http://www.sorosoro.org/en/kiowa-tanoan-languages/

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Timor-Alor-Pantar languages

Timor-Alor-Pantar languages are spoken in southern Indonesia in Timor, Kisar and the Alor archipelago. There are about 20 languages in this family.

Timor-Alor-Pantar languages
Abui

More information about the Timor-Alor-Pantar languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timor-Alor-Pantar_languages

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Tsimshianic languages

The four Tsimshianic languages are spoken in northwestern British Columbia in Canada and in Southeast Alaska on Annette Island and Ketchikan in the USA. About 2,170 people speak these languages.

Tsimshianic languages
Gitxsan, Nisga’a, Tsimshian

More information about Tsimshianic languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsimshianic_languages

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Trans-New Guinean languages

The Trans-New Guinean languages are an extensive family spoken in New Guinea and neighboring islands. The core of the family is considered to be established, but its boundaries and overall membership are uncertain.

Trans-New Guinean languages
Amele, Awara, Blagar, Daga, Kanasi, Meriam Mir, Tairoa, Teiwa, Wantoat

More information about the Trans-New Guinean languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans-New_Guinea_languages

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Tucanoan languages

Tucanoan languages are spoken by about 30,000 people in parts of southern and central Colombia, northwestern Brazil, northeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru.

Tucanoan languages
Cubeo, Guanano, Secoya

More information about the Tucanoan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tucanoan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/tucanoan
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Tucanoan+Languages

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Tungusic languages

The Tungusic or Manchu-Tungus language family includes 11 languages spoken by about 75,000 people in Eastern Siberia and northeast China.

Northern Tungusic languages
Even, Evenki, Negidal, Oroch, Oroqen, Udege
Southern Tungusic languages
Jurchen, Manchu, Nanai, Orok / Uilta, Ulch, Xibe

More information about Tungusic languages
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/turkic
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/tungusic

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Tupi-Guarani languages

The Tupi-Guarani language family consists of 50 or so languages spoken by about 10 million people in parts of Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Paraguay and Peru. It is a branch of the larger Tupian language family, which includes another 20 languages.

Tupi-Guarani languages
Guarani, Kaiwá, Nheengatu

More information about the Tupi-Guarani languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tupi-Guarani_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/tupí-guaraní

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Turkic languages

The Turkic language family consists of 41 languages spoken by about 170 million people in parts of eastern Europe, and in West, Central, North and East Asia.

Turkic languages

More information about Turkic languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkic_languages
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/turkic

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Tuu languages

The Tuu languages are spoken in South Africa and Botswana. Four of these languages are currently spoken by about 2,500 people.

Tuu languages
Nǁng (Nǁŋǃke), Taa

More information about Tuu languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuu_languages

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Uralic languages

There are 38 Uralic languages spoken in Finland, Estonian, Hungary, Russia, Norway and Sweden by about 25 million people. This family is named after the Ural mountains, which is thought to be where they originated. This language family is also known as Finno-Ugric, which generally excludes the Samoyedic languages.

Finnic languages
Estonian, Finnish, Karelian, Kven, Livonian, Ludic, Veps, Võro, Votic
Mari languages
Hill Mari, Meadow Mari, Northwestern Mari
Mordvinic languages
Erzya, Moksha
Permic languages
Komi, Udmurt
Sámi languages
Inari Saami, Kildin Sámi, Lule Sámi, Northern Sámi, Pite Sámi, Skolt Sámi, Southern Sámi, Ter Sámi, Ume Sámi
Samoyedic languages
Enets, Nenets, Nganasan
Ugric languages
Hungarian, Khanty, Mansi

More information about the Uralic languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uralic_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/uralic

Hear spoken examples of the Uralic languages

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Uto-Aztecan languages

The Uto-Aztecan languages are spoken mainly in western parts of the USA and in Mexico, and also in El Salvador. There are 61 members of this language family spoken by about 1.9 million people.

Uto-Aztecan languages
Comanche, Cora, Hopi, Huarijio, Huichol, Ivilyuat / Cahuilla, Kawaiisu, Luiseño, Mayo, Mono, O'odham, Nahuatl, Northern Paiute, Pipil, Serrano, Shoshone, Tarahumara, Tepehuán, Timbisha, Tongva, Yaqui

More information about the Uto-Aztecan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uto-Aztecan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/uto-aztecan

Hear spoken and sung samples of Uto-Aztecan languages

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Wakashan languages

The Wakashan languages are spoken in British Columbia and on Vancouver Island in Canada, and on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state in the USA. There are eight languages in this family with about 1,000 speakers.

Wakashan languages
Ditidaht, Haisla, Heiltsuk, Kwak̓wala, Liq’wala, Makah, Nuu-Chah-Nulth, Oowekyala

More information about the Wakashan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wakashan_languages
http://depts.washington.edu/wll2/languages.html

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Wintuan languages

The Wintuan languages is a small family of four languages that were spoken in the Sacramento Valley in northern California in the USA. There are no native speakers of these languages, except perhaps Patwin, however efforts are being made to revitalize them.

Wintuan languages
Patwin, Wintu

More information about the Wintuan languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wintuan_languages

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Yeniseian languages

There is just one Yenisei language spoken by just about 200 people along the Yenisei river in central Siberia in the Russian Federation. The only other Yeniseian language to survive into the 20th century was Yug(h), which became extinct in 1990.

Yeniseian languages
Ket

More information about the Yenisei languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeniseian_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/yeniseian

Sample of spoken Ket

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Yuman–Cochimí languages

The Yuman-Cochimí languages are spoken in Baja California and northern Sonora in Mexico, and in southern California and western Arizonia in the USA. There are 12 Yuman-Cochimí languages currently spoken. All are endangered.

Yuman-Cochimí languages
Cocopah, Ipai, Kiliwa, Kumeyaay, Maricopa, Mojave, Paipai, Quechan, Tiipai

More information about the Yuman-Cochimí languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuman-Cochimí_languages
https://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/cochimí-yuman-1
http://www.sorosoro.org/en/yuman-cochimi-languages/

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Yok-Utian languages

Yok-Utian, or Hotian, is a proposed language family consisting of the Yokutsan and Utian languages, which are spoken in parts of California. There are only a small number of languages in this family, and all are endangered.

Yok-Utian languages
Chukchansi, Mutsun, Wukchumni

More information about the Yok-Utian languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yok-Utian_languages

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Zaparoan languages

The five Zaparoan languages have fewer than 100 speakers and are spoken in parts of Peru and Ecuador.

Zaparoan languages
Andoa, Arabela, Záparo

More information about the Zaparoan languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaparoan_languages
http://www.ethnologue.com/subgroups/zaparoan

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Language isolates

Languages isolates are languages with no known connection to any other languages. Some languages are isolates because all their relatives are extinct, others, such as Basque, have been isolates for all their documented existence.

Language isolates
Adaizan, Ainu, Basque, Burushaski, Candoshi-Shapra, Chitimacha, Eskayan, Haida, Karuk, Kuot, Mapuche, Natchez, Nivkh, Páez, Purepecha, Seri, Sumerian, Ticuna, Tiwi, Tunica, Urarina, Wardaman, Washo, Yuchi/Euchee

More information about the language isolates
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_isolate

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Creole languages

Creole languages develop from contact languages or pidgins when they are learned by children as native languages. Pidgins emerge in situations where people who do not share a common language need to communicate.

Creole languages
Betawi, Bislama, Cape Verdean Creole, Chavacano, Chinook Jargon, Fanagalo, French Guianese Creole, Guadeloupean Creole, Guinea-Bissau Creole, Haitian Creole, Jamaican, Kituba, Manado Malay, Mauritian Creole, Nagamese, Ndyuka, Norfuk, Palenquero, Papiamento, Pijin, Réunion Creole, Sango, Saramaccan, Seychelles Creole, Sierra Leonean Creole, Sranan, Saint Lucian Creole, Tok Pisin, Torres-Strait Creole

More information about the Creole languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creole_language

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International Auxiliary Languages (IALs)

International Auxiliary Languages are used as second languages for communication between people from different countries without a common languages. They are also known as IALs, auxlangs or interlanguages, and this name often refers to planned or constructed languages.

International Auxiliary Languages
Blissymbolics, Esperanto, Folkspraak, Ido, Interglossa, Interlingua, Interlingue/Occidental, Interslavic, Lingua Franca Nova, Lojban, Novial, Romániço, Slovio, Solresol, Volapük

More information about the international auxiliary languages
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_auxiliary_language

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More information about language families
http://aboutworldlanguages.com/families
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_family
https://www.ethnologue.com/statistics/family



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